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 Stratosphere And Upper Troposphere: People
Michelle Santee's Picture
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
M/S 233-200
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109

Michelle Santee
Group Supervisor

  • B.S. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University (1982)
  • M.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (1984)
  • M.S. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1989)
  • Ph.D. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1993)

Research Interests
  • Processes controlling trace gas distributions in the upper troposphere / lowermost stratosphere, such as stratosphere-troposphere exchange
  • Transport of pollution in the UT/LS
  • Polar processes in the lower stratosphere, such as chlorine activation and deactivation, polar stratospheric cloud formation, denitrification and dehydration, and polar ozone loss
  • Stratospheric effects of solar energetic particle events


MLS - Microwave Limb Sounder Icon MLS - Microwave Limb Sounder
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice.

Professional Experience
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
    • Supervisor, Microwave Atmospheric Science Group (2014-Present)
    • Manager, Earth Atmospheric Science Section (2009-2014)
    • Supervisor, Microwave Atmospheric Science Group (2006-2009)
    • Scientist/Research Scientist/Principal Scientist (1994-Present)

Selected Publications
  1. Manney, G.L., M.I. Hegglin, W.H. Daffer, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, and S. Pawson, Climatology of Upper Tropospheric/Lower Stratospheric (UTLS) Jets and Tropopauses in MERRA, J. Clim., 27, 3248–3271, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00243.1, 2014.
  2. Neu, J., T. Flury, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, J. Worden, Tropospheric ozone variations governed by changes in the stratospheric circulation, Nature Geosci., 7, 340–344, 2014.
  3. Santee, M.L., N.J. Livesey, G.L. Manney, A. Lambert, and W.G. Read, Methyl chloride from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder: First global climatology and assessment of variability in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, doi:10.1002/2013JD020235, 2013.
  4. Schwartz, M.J., W.G. Read, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G.L. Manney, Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421, 2013.
  5. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mu¨ller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Stroh, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, and E. Hosen, Uncertainties in modeling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3909-3929, 2013.
  6. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee, and G.L. Manney, Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004-2005, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 2673-2688, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50226, 2013.
  7. Wang, S., K.-F. Li, T.J. Pongetti, S.P. Sander, Y.L. Yung, M.-C. Liang, N.J Livesey, M.L. Santee, J.W. Harder, M. Snow, F.P. Mills, Midlatitude atmospheric OH response to the most recent 11-y solar cycle, PNAS, 110, 2023-2028, 2013.
  8. Livesey, N.J., J.A. Logan, M.L. Santee, J.W. Waters, R.M. Doherty, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, and J.H. Jiang, Interrelated variations of O3, CO and deep convection in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) during 2004-2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 579- 598, 2013.
  9. Kvissel, O.-K., Y.J. Orsolini, F. Stordal, I.S.A. Isaksen, and M.L. Santee, Formation of stratospheric nitric acid by a hydrated ion cluster reaction: Implications for the effect of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D16301, doi:10.1029/2011JD017257, 2012.
  10. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M.Lo´pez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero, and M. Storini, Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4159-4179, 2012.
  11. Lambert, A., M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, and J.H. Chae, A-train CALIOP and MLS observations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds and nitric acid in 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2899-2931, 2012.
  12. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, M. Rex, N.J. Livesey, M.C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E.R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L.R. Poole, M.R. Schoeberl, D.P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyro¨, N. Larsen, P.F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C.T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M.C. Parrondo, D.W. Tarasick, P. von der Gathen, K.A. Walker, and N.S. Zinoviev, Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011, Nature, 478, 469-475, doi:10.1038/nature10556, 2011.
  13. Khosrawi, F., J. Urban, M.C. Pitts, P. Voelger, P. Achtert, M. Kaphlanov, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, D. Murtagh, and K.-H. Fricke, Denitrification and polar stratospheric cloud formation during the Arctic winter 2009/2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8471-8487, 2011.
  14. Feng, W. M.P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, S. Dhomse, L. Harvey, C. Randall, and M.L. Santee, Modelling the effect of denitrification on polar ozone depletion for Arctic winter 2004/2005, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6559-6573, 2011.
  15. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.J. Schwartz, and W.G. Read, Trace gas evolution in the lowermost stratosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D18306, doi:10.1029/2011JD015590, 2011.
  16. Manney, G.L., M.I. Hegglin, W.H. Daffer, M.L. Santee, E.A. Ray, S. Pawson, M.J. Schwartz, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, and K.A. Walker, Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS): Applications to climatology and transport studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6115- 6137, 2011.
  17. Pumphrey, H.C., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, and W.G. Read, Microwave Limb Sounder observations of biomass-burning products from the Australian bush fires of February 2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6285-6296, 2011.
  18. Verronen, P.T., M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, and R. Lehmann, Nitric acid enhancements in the mesosphere during the January 2005 and December 2006 solar proton events, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D17301, doi:10.1029/2011JD016075, 2011.
  19. Nedoluha, G.E., B.J. Connor, J. Barret, T. Mooney, A. Parrish, I. Boyd, J. Wrotny, R.M. Gomez, J. Koda, M.L. Santee, and L. Froidevaux, Ground-based measurements of ClO from Mauna Kea and intercomparisons with Aura and UARS MLS, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D02307, doi:10.1029/2010JD014732, 2011.
  20. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, X. Liu, J.E. Penner, W.G. Read, S. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P. Colarco, N.J. Livesey, and M.L. Santee, Enhanced water vapor transport to the stratosphere by pollutants in Asia, J. Clim., 24, 2728-2736, 2011.
  21. Santee, M.L., S.P. Sander, N.J. Livesey, and L. Froidevaux, Constraining the chlorine monoxide (ClO)/chlorine peroxide (ClOOCl) equilibrium constant from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements of nighttime ClO, PNAS, 107, 6588-6593, 2010.
  22. Damiani, A., M. Storini, M.L. Santee, and S. Wang, Variability of the nighttime OH layer and mesospheric ozone at high latitudes during northern winter: Influence of meteorology, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10,291- 10,303, 2010.
  23. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S. Pawson, H-C. Li, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, M. Schwartz, A. Lambert, R. Fuller, J.N. Lee, and N.J. Livesey, Five-year (2004-2009) observations of upper tropospheric water vapor and cloud ice from MLS and comparisons with GEOS-5 analyses, J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/ 2009JD013256, 2010.
  24. Manney, G.L., R.S. Harwood, I.A. MacKenzie, K. Minschwaner, D.R. Allen, M.L. Santee, K.A. Walker, M.I. Hegglin, A. Lambert, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, M.J. Schwartz, N.J. Livesey, W.H. Daffer, and R.A. Fuller, Satellite observations and modelling of transport in the upper troposphere through the lower mesosphere during the 2006 major stratospheric sudden warming, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4775- 4795, 2009.
  25. Manney, G.L., M.J. Schwartz, K. Krüger, M.L. Santee, S. Pawson, J.N. Lee, W.H. Daffer, R.A. Fuller, and N.J. Livesey, Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations of dynamics and transport during the record-breaking 2009 Arctic stratospheric major warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12815, doi:10.1029/ 2009GL038586, 2009.
  26. Popp, P.J., T.P. Marcy, R.S. Gao, L.A. Watts, D.W. Fahey, E.C. Richard, S.J. Oltmans, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, B. Sen, G.C. Toon, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, Stratospheric correlation between nitric acid and ozone, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D03305, doi:10.1029/2008JD010875, 2009.
  27. Santee, M.L., I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.P. Chipperfield, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, and J.W. Waters, A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new satellite measurements and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12307, doi:10.1029/2007JD009057, 2008.
  28. Santee, M.L., et al., Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder ClO measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15S22, doi:10.1029/2007JD008762, 2008.
  29. Manney, G.L., et al., The high Arctic in extreme winters: Vortex, temperature, and MLS and ACE-FTS trace gas evolution, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 505­522, 2008.
  30. Santee, M.L., et al., Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HNO3 measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S40, doi:10.1029/2007JD008721, 2007.
  31. Manney, G.L., et al., Solar occultation satellite data and derived meteorological products: Sampling issues and comparisons with Aura MLS, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S50, doi:10.1029/2007JD008709, 2007.
  32. Manney, G.L., N.J. Livesey, C.J. Jimenez, H.C. Pumphrey, M.L. Santee, I.A. MacKenzie, L. Froidevaux, and J.W. Waters, EOS MLS observations of "frozen-in" anticyclonic air in Arctic in summer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06810, doi:10.1029/2005GL025418, 2006.
  33. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, K. Hoppel, N.J. Livesey, and J.W. Waters, EOS MLS observations of ozone loss in the 20042005 Arctic winter, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L04802, doi:10.1029/2005GL024494, 2006.
  34. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, M.J. Schwartz, and J.W. Waters, Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole: First results from MLS on Aura, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12817, doi:10.1029/2005GL022582, 2005.
  35. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, and J.W. Waters, EOS Microwave Limb Sounder observations of the Antarctic polar vortex breakup in 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12811, doi:10.1029/2005GL022823, 2005.

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