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Charles Miller

Photo of Charles Miller


4800 Oak Grove Drive
M/S 183-501

Pasadena, CA 91109





Curriculum Vitae:

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Member of:

Carbon Cycle And Ecosystems



  • B.S., Chemistry and History, Duke University, cum laude and departmental prize in Chemistry (1986)
  • Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley (1991)

Professional Experience

  • National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Committee on the Future Use of NASA Airborne Platforms to Advance Earth Science Priorities (2020 – 2021)
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate Science Advisory Committee (2018 – 2020)
  • NGEE-Arctic Science Advisory Board (2016 – )
  • GLOBALVIEW+ data provider (2012 – )
  • WMO CO2 Experts Science Advisory Group (2009 – )
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2003 - present)
    • Principal Scientist (2010 - present)
    • Project Scientist (2005 - present)
    • Research Scientist (2003-2005)
    • Principal Investigator, Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), (2010-2016)
  • Deputy Principal Investigator, Orbiting Carbon Observatory (2001 - 2009)
  • Visiting Associate in Environmental Science & Engineering, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology (2012 - present)
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Haverford College (1997 - 2003)
  • National Research Council Resident Research Associate, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (1994 - 1997)
  • Welch Postdoctoral Fellow, Rice University (1991-1994)

Research Interests

  • Carbon Cycle Science
  • Arctic-Boreal Systems
  • Megacity Emissions and Remote Sensing
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Photochemistry
  • Molecular Spectroscopy

Selected Awards

  • NASA Group Achievement Award: OCO-2 Science Team, 2018
  • NASA Group Achievement Award: ABoVE Airborne Campaign Team, 2018
  • NASA Outstanding Public Leadership Medal: Advancing NASA's Carbon Cycle Science Program, 2016
  • NASA Group Achievement Award: CARVE Implementation Team, 2016
  • NASA Group Achievement Award: CARVE Team, 2014
  • NASA Group Achievement Award: SMD American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Team, 2011
  • NASA Group Achievement Award: Molecular Spectroscopy Team, 2006
  • Remote Sensing: Best Paper Award, 2015

Selected Publications

Recent Publications (more than 200 total)

  1. Goetz, SJ, Miller, CE, Griffith, PC, et al., An overview of NASA’s Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE): An integrated research campaign to assess ecosystem vulnerability and its implications within the Arctic and boreal domain, Environmental Research Letters (ABoVE Special Collection), to be submitted
  2. Hasson, Nicholas R., Clayton D. Elder, Ronald P. Daanen, Simon Peterson, Charles E. Miller, Katey M. Walter Anthony, The Proximal Cold Season Carbon Loss Surrounding Yedoma Thermokarst Lakes in Boreal Pan-Arctic from 2019-2020, Environmental Research Letters (ABoVE Special Collection), to be submitted
  3. Yi, Yonghong, Richard H. Chen, Xiaolan Xu, Mahta Moghaddam, John S. Kimball, Eugenie Euskirchen, Narendra Das, Charles E. Miller, Investigating the sensitivity of L-band polarization ratio to surface organic soil properties in Arctic tundra area, Water Resources Research, to be submitted
  4. Carroll1, Dustin, Dimitris Menemenlis, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Jonathan Lauderdale, Kevin Bowman, Holger Brix, Michelle Gierach, Peter Landschutzer, Manfredi Manizza, Matt Mazlo, Charles Miller, David Schimel, Hong Zhang, Attribution of space-time variability in global-ocean dissolved inorganic carbon, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, to be submitted
  5. Mitchell, Logan E., John C. Lin, Lucy Hutyra, Ronald C. Cohen, Ken Davis, Elizabeth DiGangi, Riley M. Duren, Clayton Fain, Matthias Falk, Abhinav Guha, Anna Karion, Ralph F. Keeling, Jooil Kim, Natasha Miles, Charles E. Miller, Sally Newman, Steve Prinzivalli, Xinrong Ren, Andrew Rice, Scott Richardson, Maryann Sargent, Jocelyn C. Turnbull, Kristal R. Verhulst, Felix Vogel, Ray F. Weiss, Steven C. Wofsy, A Multi-City Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Measurement Data Product, Nature Scientific Data, Manuscript SDATA-21-00670, in review
  6. Stavros, E. Natasha, Jon Chrone, Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Anthony Freeman, Nancy F. Glenn, Liane Guild, Raymond Kokaly, Christine Lee, Jeffrey Luvall, Ryan Pavlick, Benjamin Poulter, Stephanie Schollaert Uz, Shawn Serbin, David R. Thompson, Philip A. Townsend, Kevin Turpie, Karen Yuen, Kurt Thome, Weile Wang, Shannon-Kian Zareh, Jamie Nastal, David Bearden, Charles E. Miller, David Schimel, Designing an Observing System to Study the Surface Biology and Geology of the Earth in the 2020s, Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences (SBG Special Collection), Manuscript 2021JG006471, in review
  7. Miller, Charles E., Peter C. Griffith, Elizabeth Hoy, Naiara S. Pinto, Yunling Lou, Scott Hensley, Bruce D. Chapman, Jennifer Baltzer, Kazem Bakian-Dogaheh, W. Robert Bolton, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez, Richard H. Chen, Byung-Hun Choe, Leah Clayton, Thomas A. Douglas, Nancy French, Jean E. Holloway, Gang Hong, Lingcao Huang, Go Iwahana, Liza Jenkins, John S. Kimball, Tatiana Loboda, Michelle Mack, Philip Marsh, Roger J. Michaelides, Mahta Moghaddam, Andrew Parsekian, Kevin Schaefer, Paul R. Siqueira, Debjani Singh, Alireza Tabatabaeenejad, Merritt Turetsky, Ridha Touzi, Elizabeth Wig, Cathy J. Wilson, Paul Wilson, Stan D. Wullschleger, Yonghong Yi, Howard A. Zebker, Yu Zhang, Yuhuan Zhao, Scott J. Goetz, The ABoVE L-band and P-band PolInSAR Airborne Surveys, Earth System Science Data, MS No.: ESSD-2021-172, in review
  8. Randazzo, Nina A., Anna M. Michalak, Charles E. Miller, Scot M. Miller, Yoichi P. Shiga, Yuanyuan Fang, Higher Autumn Temperatures Lead to Contrasting Responses in Boreal Forests Versus Tundra and Shrubland, Geophysical Research Letters, Manuscript 2020GL091652, in review
  9. Zona, Donatella, Xiaofeng Xu, Koen Hufkens, Beniamino Gioli, George Burba, Jordan Goodrich, Anna Liljedahl, Eugénie Euskirchen, Jennifer Watts, John Kimball, Martin Heimann, Mathias Goeckede, Fanny Kittler, Magnus Lund, Albertus Dolman, Luca Belelli, Róisín Commane, Steven Wofsy, Charles Miller, David Lipson, Aram Kalhori, Josh Hashemi, Kyle Arndt, Lars Kutzbach, Julia Boike, Christian Wille, David Holl, Torsten Sachs, Xia Song, Elyn Humphreys, Peter Lafleur, Charles Koven, Walter Oechel, Pan-Arctic moisture limitation to tundra carbon sequestration, Nature Climate Change, Manuscript NCLIM-20092411
  10. Miner, KR, CE Miller, M Turetsky, Diego Fernandez-Prieto, Annett Bartsch, Johanna Tamminen, Andreas Fix, Colm Sweeney, Biogeochemical Risks and Impacts from Arctic Permafrost Degradation, Nature Climate Change, Manuscript NCLIM-20082214, revised manuscript submitted
  11. Malina, E. et al., The Methane Arctic Permafrost Challenge – Scaling the Approach, Nature Geosciences, Manuscript No. 2020-06-10642, prospectus accepted for full paper submission
  12. Miner, KR, Merritt Turetsky, Annett Bartsch, Johanna Tamminen, A. David McGuire, Andreas Fix, Edward Malina, Colm Sweeney, Clayton Elder, Charles E. Miller, Dynamic Permafrost Carbon in the New Arctic, (invited), Nature Reviews – Earth and Environment, Manuscript number: NATREVEARTHENVIRON-20-265V1A, revised manuscript submitted
  13. Sweeney, C., Chatterjee, A., Wolter, S., McKain, K., Bogue, R., Newberger, T., Hu, L., Ott, L., Poulter, B., Schiferl, L., Weir, B., Zhang, Z., and Miller, C. E.: Atmospheric carbon cycle dynamics over the ABoVEdomain: an integrated analysis using aircraft observations (Arctic-CAP) and model simulations (GEOS), Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,, in review, 2020.
  14. Elder, Clayton D., David R. Thompson, Andrew K. Thorpe, Latha Baskaran, Philip J. Hanke, Stephanie James, Burke Minsley, Neal Pastick, Katey M. Walter Anthony, Charles E. Miller, Characterizing Extreme Methane Emissions from Thermokarst Hotspots, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Manuscript 2020GB006922-T, revised manuscript submitted
  15. Fahlen, Jay E., Philip G. Brodrick, David R. Thompson, Glynn Hulley, Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Robert O. Green, Joseph J. Green, Robert Herman, Charles E. Miller, Remote Imaging Spectroscopy of Earth’s Surface in UV to Thermal Wavelengths, Remote Sensing of the Environment, accepted
  16. Ma, Shuang, John R Worden, A. Anthony Bloom, Yuzhong Zhang, Benjamin Poulter, Daniel H. Cusworth, Yi Yin, Sudhanshu Pandey, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Xiao Lu, Lu Shen, Jianxiong Sheng, Christian Frankenberg, Charles E. Miller, Daniel J. Jacob, Satellite methane observations constrain latitudinal distribution of wetland emissions and their climate sensitivity, AGU Advances, Manuscript 2021AV000408R, in press
  17. Madani, Nima, Nicholas C. Parazoo, John S. Kimball, Rolf H Reichle, Abhishek Chatterjee, Jennifer D. Watts, Sassan Saatchi, Zhihua Liu, Arthur Endsley, Torbern Tagesson, Brendan M. Rogers, Alan Xu, Jonathan A. Wang, Troy Magney, Charles E. Miller, The Impacts of Climate and Wildfire on Ecosystem Gross Primary Productivity in Alaska, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 126, e2020JG006078.
  18. Yadav, Vineet, Subhomoy Ghosh, Kimberly Mueller, Anna Karion, Geoffrey Roest, Sharon M. Gourdji, Israel Lopez-Coto, Kevin R. Gurney, Nicholas Parazoo, Kristal Verhulst, Jooil Kim, Steve Prinzivalli, Clayton Fain, Thomas Nehrkorn, Marikate Mountain, Ralph F. Keeling, Ray Weiss, Riley Duren, Charles E. Miller, James Whetstone, The impact of COVID-19 on CO2 emissions in the Los Angeles and Washington DC/Baltimore metropolitan areas. Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2021GL092744.
  19. Wiggins, E. B., Andrews, A., Sweeney, C., Miller, J. B., Miller, C. E., Veraverbeke, S., Commane, R., Wofsy, S., Henderson, J. M., and Randerson, J. T.: Boreal forest fire CO and CH4 emission factors derived from tower observations in Alaska during the extreme fire season of 2015, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8557–8574,, 2021.
  20. Cusworth, Daniel H., Riley M. Duren, Andrew K. Thorpe, Winston Olson-Duvall, Joseph Heckler, John W. Chapman, Michael L. Eastwood, Mark C. Helmlinger, Robert O. Green, Gregory P. Asner, Philip E. Dennison, and Charles E. Miller, Intermittent methane emissions in the Permian Basin, Environmental Science & Technology Letters, Article ASAP, Published online 2 June 2021.
  21. Cusworth, D. H., Duren, R. M., Thorpe, A. K., Eastwood, M. L., Green, R. O., Dennison, P. E., Frankenberg, C., Heckler, J. W., Asner, G. P., Miller, C. E. (2021). Quantifying global power plant carbon dioxide emissions with imaging spectroscopy. AGU Advances, 2, e2020AV000350.
  22. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2021. Airborne Platforms to Advance NASA Earth System Science Priorities: Assessing the Future Need for a Large Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  23. Cawse-Nicholson, Kerry, et al., NASA’s Surface Biology and Geology Designated Observable: A Perspective on Surface Imaging Algorithms. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 257, 112349 (2021).
  24. Walter Anthony, K.M., P. Hanke, P. Lindgren, M. Engram, P. Anthony, R. Daanen, A. Bondurant, A. Liljedahl, J. Heslop, J. Lenz, B. Jones, L. Brosius, G. Grosse, C. Maio, C.E. Miller, F.J. Meyer (2021), Decadal-scale hotspot CH4 emission following abrupt permafrost thaw, Environ. Res. Lett. 16, 035010. (ABoVE Special Collection).
  25. Borchardt, J., Gerilowski, K., Krautwurst, S., Bovensmann, H., Thorpe, A. K., Thompson, D. R., Frankenberg, C., Miller, C. E., Duren, R. M., and Burrows, J. P.: Detection and quantification of CH4 plumes using the WFM-DOAS retrieval on AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral data, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1267–1291,, 2021.
  26. Cusworth, Daniel H., Riley M. Duren, Andrew K. Thorpe, Sudhanshu Pandey, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Ilse Aben, Dylan Jervis, Daniel Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Cynthia A. Randles, Mike Smith, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Gunnar Schade, Philip E. Dennison, Christian Frankenberg, Deborah Gordon, Ettore Lopinto, and Charles E. Miller (2021), Multi-satellite imaging of a gas well blowout provides new insights for methane monitoring, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48, e2020GL090864.
  27. Jiang, Huiru, Guanheng Zheng, Yonghong Yi, Deliang Chen, Wenjiang Zhang, Kun Yang, Charles E. Miller, Progress and challenges in studying regional permafrost in the Tibetan Plateau using satellite remote sensing and models, Frontiers in Earth Science, published online 4 December 2020.
  28. Rafiq, Talha, Riley M. Duren, Andrew K. Thorpe, Kelsey T. Foster, Risa Patarsuk, Charles E. Miller, Francesca M. Hopkins, Source Attribution of Methane Point Source Emissions using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy and the Vista-California Methane Infrastructure Dataset, Environ. Res. Lett., 15, 124001.
  29. Yi, Y., Kimball, J. S., Watts, J. D., Natali, S. M., Zona, D., Liu, J., Ueyama, M., Kobayashi, H., Oechel, W., and Miller, C. E.: Investigating the sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration to recent snow cover changes in Alaska using a satellite-based permafrost carbon model, Biogeosciences, 17, 5861–5882,, 2020.
  30. Miner, KR, A Edwards, CE Miller, Deep Frozen Arctic Microbes Are Waking Up, Scientific American, published online 20 November 2020,
  31. Miller, John B., Scott J. Lehman, Kristal R. Verhulst, Charles E. Miller, Riley M. Duren, Vineet Yadav, Sally Newman, Vineet Yadav, Christopher D. Sloop, Large and Seasonally Varying biospheric CO2 fluxes in the Los Angeles megacity revealed by atmospheric radiocarbon, PNAS, first published October 12, 2020;
  32. Byrne, Brendan, Junjie Liu, Meemong Lee, Ian Baker, Kevin W. Bowman, Matthäus Kiel, John S. Kimball, Charles E. Miller, Nicholas C. Parazoo (2020), Improved constraints on northern extratropical CO2 fluxes obtained by combining surface-based and space-based atmospheric CO2 measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125, e2019JD032029.
  33. Kumar, Manoj, James Shee, Benjamin Rudshteyn, David R. Reichman, Richard A. Friesner, Charles E. Miller, Joseph S. Francisco, Multiple Stable Isoprene-Ozone Complexes Reveal Complex Entrance Channel Dynamics in the Isoprene + Ozone Reaction, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2020, 142, 24, 10806–10813.
  34. Cusworth, Daniel H., Riley M. Duren, Andrew K. Thorpe, Eugene Tseng, David Thompso, Abhinav Guha, Sally Newman, Kelsey T. Foster, Charles E. Miller, Using remote sensing to detect, validate, and quantify methane emissions from California solid waste operations, Env. Res. Lett. 15 (2020) 050412.
  35. Cusworth, Daniel H., Riley M. Duren, Vineet Yadav, Andrew K. Thorpe, Kristal Verhulst, Stanley Sander, Francesca Hopkins, Talha Rafiq, Charles E. Miller (2020), Synthesis of methane observations across scales: Strategies for deploying a multi-tiered observing network, Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL087869.
  36. Thorpe, Andrew K., Riley M. Duren, Stephen Conley, Kuldeep R. Prasad, Brian D. Bue, Vineet Yadav, Kelsey T. Foster, Talha Rafiq, Francesca M. Hopkins, Mackenzie L. Smith, Marc L. Fischer, David R. Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Ian B. McCubbin, Michael L. Eastwood, Robert O. Green, Charles E. Miller, Methane emissions from underground gas storage in California, Environ Res Lett, 15 (2020) 045005.
  37. Elder, C. D., Thompson, D. R., Thorpe, A. K., Hanke, P., Walter Anthony, K. M., & Miller, C. E. (2020). Airborne mapping reveals emergent power law of Arctic methane emissions. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL085707.
  38. Shi, Mingjie; Parazoo, Nicholas; Jeong, Sujong; Birch, Leah; Lawrence, Peter; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Miller, Charles. Exposure to Cold Temperature Affects the Spring Phenology of Alaskan Deciduous Vegetation Types, Environmental Research Letters, 15, 025006 (ABoVE Special Collection).
  39. Cawse-Nicholson, K., S. Hook, C.E. Miller, D.R. Thompson, Intrinsic dimensionality in combined visible to thermal infrared imagery, accepted, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Adv Online Version published 4 Oct 2019 . DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2019.2938883
  40. Floerchinger, Cody, Kathryn McKain, Timothy Bonin, Jeff Peischl, Sebastien Biraud, Charles E. Miller, Thomas B. Ryerson, Steven C. Wofsy, Colm Sweeney, Methane emissions from oil and gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, Atm Environ, 218 (2019) 116985.
  41. Duren, Riley, Andrew Thorpe, Kelsey T. Foster, Talha Rafiq, Francesca M. Hopkins, Vineet Yadav, Brian Bue, David R. Thompson, Steve Conley, Nadia Colombi, Christian Frankenberg, Ian McCubbin, Michael Eastwood, Mathias Falk, Jorn Herner, Bart E. Croes, Robert O. Green, Charles E. Miller, California’s Methane Super-Emitters, Nature 575, 180-184 (2019). doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1720-3
  42. Cusworth, D. H., Jacob, D. J., Varon, D. J., Chan Miller, C., Liu, X., Chance, K., Thorpe, A. K., Duren, R. M., Miller, C. E., Thompson, D. R., Frankenberg, C., Guanter, L., and Randles, C. A.: Potential of next-generation imaging spectrometers to detect and quantify methane point sources from space, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5655–5668,, 2019.
  43. Schimel, D., Schneider, F., JPL Carbon and Ecosystem Participants, 2019. Flux towers in the sky: Global ecology from space. (Tansley Review) New Phytologist.
  44. Nassar, Ray, Chris McLinden, Christopher E. Sioris, C. T. McElroy, Joseph Mendonca, Johanna Tamminen, Cameron G. MacDonald, Cristen Adams, Céline Boisvenue, Adam Bourassa, Ryan Cooney, Doug Degenstein, Guillaume Drolet, Louis Garand, Ralph Girard, Markey Johnson, Dylan B.A. Jones, Felicia Kolonjari, Bruce Kuwahara, Randall V. Martin, Charles E. Miller, Norman O’Neill, Aku Riihelä, Sébastien Roche, Stanley P. Sander, William R. Simpson, Gurpreet Singh, Kimberly Strong, Alexander P. Trishchenko, Helena van Mierlo, Zahra Vaziri Zanjani, Kaley A. Walker & Debra Wunch (2019). The Atmospheric Imaging Mission for Northern Regions: AIM-North, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing.
  45. Kevin R. Gurney, Risa Patarasuk, Jianming Liang, Yang Song, Darragh O'Keeffe, Preeti Rao, James Whetstone, Riley Duren, Annmarie Eldering, and Charles E. Miller, The Hestia Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Data Product for the Los Angeles Megacity (Hestia-LA), Earth System Science Data, 11, 1309–1335, 2019.
  46. Cui, Yuyan; Vijayan, Abhilash; Falk, Matthias; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Yin, Dazhong; Chen, Xuemeng; Zhao, Zhan; Avise, Jeremy; Chen, Yanju; Verhulst, Kristal; Duren, Riley; Yadav, Vineet; Miller, Charles; Weiss, Ray; Keeling, Ralph; Kim, Jooil; Iraci, Laura; Tanaka, Tomoaki ; Johnson, Matthew; Kort, Eric; Bianco, Laura; Fischer, Marc; Stroud, Kenneth; Herner, Jorn; Croes, Bart. A multi-platform inversion estimation of statewide and regional methane emissions in California during 2014-2016. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019, 53, 16, 9636-9645.
  47. Miller, CE, PC Griffith, SJ Goetz, L Hoy, N Pinto, I McCubbin, A Thorpe, M Hofton, D Hodkinson, C Hansen, J Woods, E Larson, ES Kasischke, and HA Margolis, An overview of ABoVE airborne campaign data acquisitions and science opportunities, Environmental Research Letters, 14, no. 8 (2019) (ABoVE Special Collection).
  48. He, L., Zeng, Z.‐C., Pongetti, T., Wong, C., Liang, J., Gurney, K. R., et al. (2019). Atmospheric methane emissions correlate with natural gas consumption from residential and commercial sectors in Los Angeles. Geophysical Research Letters, 46.
  49. Yadav, Vineet, Kim Mueller, Kris Verhulst, Riley Duren, Thomas Nehrkorn, Jooil Kim, Ray F. Weiss, Ralph Keeling, Stanley Sander, Marc Fischer, Sally Newman, Matthias Falk, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Talha Rafiq, James Whetstone, Anna Karion, Charles Miller (2019), Spatio-temporally resolved methane fluxes from the Los Angeles Megacity, Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 124, 5131-5148.
  50. Manizza, M., Menemenlis, D., Zhang, H., Miller, C. E. (2019). Modeling the recent changes in the Arctic Ocean CO2 sink (2006–2013). Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 33, 420-438.
  51. Zareh, Shannon Kian, Charles Miller, Andre Wong, Peter Sullivan, Mayer Rud, Yuri Beregovski, Daniel W. Wilson, J. Kent Wallace, Glenn Sellar, Didier Keymeulen, Cynthia B. Brooks, Annmarie Eldering, Dejian Fu, Amy Mainzer. The Carbon Balance Observatory (CARBO) Instrument for remote sensing of Greenhouse Gases from Space, SPIE Remote Sensing, 2019, Strasbourg, France, Proceedings Volume 11152, Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XXIV; 111520Z (2019)
  52. Yi, Y., Kimball, J. S., Chen, R. H., Moghaddam, M., and Miller, C. E.: Sensitivity of active-layer freezing process to snow cover in Arctic Alaska, The Cryosphere, 13, 197-218,, 2019.