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 Stratosphere And Upper Troposphere (329D): People
Michelle  Santee's Picture
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
M/S 183-701
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109
Email Contact:

Michelle Santee
Group Supervisor

  • B.S. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University (1982)
  • M.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (1984)
  • M.S. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1989)
  • Ph.D. Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology (1993)

Research Interests
  • Processes controlling trace gas distributions in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UTLS), such as the convective transport of boundary-layer pollutants and stratosphere-troposphere exchange 
  • The impact of the summer monsoons on UTLS composition
  • Lower stratospheric polar processes such as chlorine activation and deactivation, polar stratospheric cloud formation, denitrification and dehydration, and chemical ozone loss 
  • Stratospheric and mesospheric effects of solar energetic particle precipitation


MLS - Microwave Limb Sounder Icon MLS - Microwave Limb Sounder
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice.

Professional Experience
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
    • Supervisor, Stratosphere and Upper Troposphere Group (2014-present)
    • Manager, Earth Atmospheric Science Section (2009-2014)
    • Supervisor, Microwave Atmospheric Science Group (2006-2009)
    • Research Scientist/Principal Scientist/Senior Research Scientist (1994-present)

Selected Publications
  1. Lambert, A. and M.L. Santee, Accuracy and precision of lower stratospheric polar reanalysis temperatures evaluated from A-Train CALIOP and MLS, COSMIC GPS RO, and the equilibrium thermodynamics of super-cooled ternary solutions and ice clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., doi:10.5194/acp-18-1945-2018, 1945-1975, 2018.
  2. M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu, and W.G. Read, A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 5491-5514, doi:10.1002/2016JD026408, 2017.
  3. Manney, G.L., M.I. Hegglin, Z.D. Lawrence, K. Wargan, L.F. Millan, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, A. Lambert, S. Pawson, B.W. Knosp, R.A. Fuller, and W.H. Daffer, Reanalysis comparisons of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric jets and multiple tropopauses, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, doi:10.5194/acp-17-11541-2017, 11541-11566, 2017.
  4. Park, M., W.J. Randel, D.E. Kinnison, A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, C.Z. Roth, C.A. McLinden, C.E. Sioris, N.J. Livesey and M.L. Santee, Variability of Stratospheric Reactive Nitrogen and Ozone Related to the QBO, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, doi:10.1002/2017JD027061, 2017.
  5. Lambert, A., M.L. Santee, and N.J. Livesey, Interannual variations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud formation and nitric acid observed by CALIOP and MLS, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15,219-15,246, doi:10.5194/acp-16-15219-2016, 2016.
  6. Millan, L., N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, J.L. Neu, G.L. Manney, and R.A. Fuller, Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: Solar occultation versus limb emission sounding, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, doi:10.5194/acp-16-11521-2016, 11,521-11,534, 2016.
  7. Nedoluha, G.E., B.J. Connor, T. Mooney, J.W. Barrett, A. Parrish, R.M. Gomez, I. Boyd, D.R. Allen, M. Kotkamp, S. Kremser, T. Deshler, P. Newman, and M.L. Santee, 20 years of ClO measurements in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10,725-10,734, doi:10.5194/acp-16-10725-2016, 2016.
  8. Damiani, A., B. Funke, M. Lopez Puertas, M.L. Santee, R.R. Cordero, and S. Watanabe, Energetic particle precipitation: A major driver of the ozone budget in the Antarctic upper stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 3554–3562, doi:10.1002/2016GL068279, 2016.
  9. Dhomse, S.S., M.P. Chipperfield, W. Feng, R. Hossaini, G.W. Mann, and M.L. Santee, Revisiting the hemispheric asymmetry in mid-latitude ozone changes following the Mount Pinatubo eruption: A 3-D model study, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL063052, 2015.
  10. Fytterer, T., M.L. Santee, M. Sinnhuber, and S. Wang, 27-day solar rotational effect on auroral mesospheric nighttime OH and O3 observations induced by geomagnetic activity, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021183, 2015.
  11. Lawrence, Z.D., G.L. Manney, K. Minschwaner, M.L. Santee, and A. Lambert, Comparisons of polar processing diagnostics from 34 years of the ERA-Interim and MERRA reanalyses, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3873–3892, 2015.
  12. Livesey, N.J., M.L. Santee, and G.L. Manney, A Match-based approach to the estimation of polar stratospheric ozone loss using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9945–9963, 2015.
  13. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert, and M.C. Pitts, Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5381–5403, 2015.
  14. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H.C. Pumphrey, and M.J. Schwartz, A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL065864, 2015.
  15. Wang, S., Q. Zhang, L. Millan , K.-F. Li, Y.L. Yung, S.P. Sander, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, First evidence of middle atmospheric HO2 response to 27-day solar cycles from satellite observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 10,004–10,009, doi:10.1002/2015GL065237, 2015.
  16. Neu, J., T. Flury, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, J. Worden, Tropospheric ozone variations governed by changes in the stratospheric circulation, Nature Geosci., 7, 340–344, 2014.
  17. Manney, G.L., M.I. Hegglin, W.H. Daffer, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, and S. Pawson, Climatology of Upper Tropospheric/Lower Stratospheric (UTLS) Jets and Tropopauses in MERRA, J. Clim., 27, 3248–3271, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00243.1, 2014.
  18. Santee, M.L., N.J. Livesey, G.L. Manney, A. Lambert, and W.G. Read, Methyl chloride from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder: First global climatology and assessment of variability in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, doi:10.1002/2013JD020235, 2013.
  19. Schwartz, M.J., W.G. Read, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G.L. Manney, Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421, 2013.
  20. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mu¨ller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Stroh, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, and E. Hosen, Uncertainties in modeling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3909-3929, 2013.
  21. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee, and G.L. Manney, Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004-2005, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 2673-2688, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50226, 2013.
  22. Wang, S., K.-F. Li, T.J. Pongetti, S.P. Sander, Y.L. Yung, M.-C. Liang, N.J Livesey, M.L. Santee, J.W. Harder, M. Snow, F.P. Mills, Midlatitude atmospheric OH response to the most recent 11-y solar cycle, PNAS, 110, 2023-2028, 2013.
  23. Livesey, N.J., J.A. Logan, M.L. Santee, J.W. Waters, R.M. Doherty, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, and J.H. Jiang, Interrelated variations of O3, CO and deep convection in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) during 2004-2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 579- 598, 2013.
  24. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M.Lo´pez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero, and M. Storini, Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4159-4179, 2012.
  25. Lambert, A., M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, and J.H. Chae, A-train CALIOP and MLS observations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds and nitric acid in 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2899-2931, 2012.
  26. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, M. Rex, N.J. Livesey, M.C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E.R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L.R. Poole, M.R. Schoeberl, D.P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyro¨, N. Larsen, P.F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C.T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M.C. Parrondo, D.W. Tarasick, P. von der Gathen, K.A. Walker, and N.S. Zinoviev, Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011, Nature, 478, 469-475, doi:10.1038/nature10556, 2011.
  27. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.J. Schwartz, and W.G. Read, Trace gas evolution in the lowermost stratosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D18306, doi:10.1029/2011JD015590, 2011.
  28. Manney, G.L., M.I. Hegglin, W.H. Daffer, M.L. Santee, E.A. Ray, S. Pawson, M.J. Schwartz, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, and K.A. Walker, Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS): Applications to climatology and transport studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6115- 6137, 2011.
  29. Pumphrey, H.C., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, and W.G. Read, Microwave Limb Sounder observations of biomass-burning products from the Australian bush fires of February 2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6285-6296, 2011.
  30. Verronen, P.T., M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, and R. Lehmann, Nitric acid enhancements in the mesosphere during the January 2005 and December 2006 solar proton events, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D17301, doi:10.1029/2011JD016075, 2011.
  31. Santee, M.L., S.P. Sander, N.J. Livesey, and L. Froidevaux, Constraining the chlorine monoxide (ClO)/chlorine peroxide (ClOOCl) equilibrium constant from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements of nighttime ClO, PNAS, 107, 6588-6593, 2010.
  32. Damiani, A., M. Storini, M.L. Santee, and S. Wang, Variability of the nighttime OH layer and mesospheric ozone at high latitudes during northern winter: Influence of meteorology, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10,291- 10,303, 2010.
  33. Santee, M.L., I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.P. Chipperfield, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, and J.W. Waters, A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new satellite measurements and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12307, doi:10.1029/2007JD009057, 2008.
  34. Santee, M.L., et al., Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder ClO measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15S22, doi:10.1029/2007JD008762, 2008.
  35. Santee, M.L., et al., Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HNO3 measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S40, doi:10.1029/2007JD008721, 2007.

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